Tuesday 5 July 2022 \

 

Shafi’i Ruling as Well as Proofs for Qunut in Salat-ul-Fajr

“Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) never ceased making Qunut in Fajr until he left the world.”

Source : ShafiiFiqh / 19 May 2014

Imam An-Nawawī states in his primer Al-Minhāj,

“And the Qunut is a Sunnah when rising from the bowing position (ruku’) in the second raka’ah of the morning prayer (As-Subh). And what is said is [the supplication],اللهم اهديني في من هديت”Allahumma Ahdini fiman hadayt…”

Until the end of the supplication. The Imam recites [the du'aa] in plural form, and what is correct (sahīh) is that it is Sunnah to send blessings upon Rasūlullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) at the end of the supplication, and that the hands be raised, and that one does not wipe their face, and that the Imām says it aloud while the the one following says Amīn…”1

Imām Ahmad ibn Naqib Al-Misrī stated in his ‘Umdat As-Sālik, as translated by Shaykh Nuh Keller as ‘The Reliance of the Traveller’:

“While performing the dawn prayer (subh) it is sunna to lift one’s hands and supplicate after straightening up from bowing in the second raka’a.One says: “[the above du'aa mentioned]“.

It is commendable to add “and none is exalted who you are at enmity with” [و لا يعز من عاديت]. If one is Imam, one pluralizes the singular pronominal suffix so that, for example, ihdinibecomes ihdināand so forth. The words of this supplication are not set and may be accomplished by pronouncing any supplication or Qur’anic verse containing a supplication, such as the last verses of Al-Baqara, though the above words are better. After this, one invokes the Blessing on the Prophet. It is recommended to raise one’s hands throughout the supplication. One does not stroke the face or chest with one’s hands after the supplication. The Imam says the supplications aloud. The follow says, “Ameen” after each supplication that is audible to him and participates in the praises and so forth by responding with similar expressions. If the imam is inaudible, the follow himself says the supplication. When praying alone one says it to one’s self.”2

This is the officially established view of the Shafi’i madhhab. What follows is the proof of the school for this view. May it be of benefit to the researcher and student of the noble Shāfi’ī school.

Proof 1:

Imam Ad-Daraqutni reports in his Sunan the following narrations:

حدثنا أبو بكر النيسابوري ثنا أبوالأزهر ثنا عبدالرزاق ثنا أبوجعفر الرازي عن الربيع بن أنس عن أنس بن مالك قال مازال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقنت في الفجر حتى فارق الدنيا

Abu Ja’far Ar-Rāzī from Ar-Rabi’ ibn Anas From Anas ibn Mālik (radiya Allahu ‘anhu), “Rasulullah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) never ceased making Qunut in Fajr until he left the world.”

In another wording via a different chain up to Abu Ja’far Ar-Rāzī:

حدثنا أحمد بن إسحاق بن بهلول ثنا أبي ثنا عبيد الله بن موسى حوحد ثنا أبوبكر النيسابوري ثنا أحمد بن يوسف السلمي ثنا عبيد الله بن موسى ثنا أبوجعفرالرازي عن الربيع بن أنس عن أنس أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قنت شهرا يدعوا عليهم ثم تركه و أما في الصبح فلم يزل يقنت حتى فارق الدنيا لفظ النيسابوري

From Anas ibn Mālik who said that the Nabi made qunut one month, supplicating against them (i.e. the enemies), then he left that, but as for in the morning prayer, he never ceased performing [the qunut] until he left the earth. [Daraqutni comments: "This is the wording of (Abu Bakr) An-Naysaburī"]

In another narration from Ar-Rabi’ ibn Anas he says:

حدثنا الحسين بن إسماعيل ثنا أحمد بن منصور و أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى قالا ثنا أبو نعيم ثنا أبوجعفر الرازي عن الربيع بن أنس قال كنت جالسا عند أنس بن مالك فقيل له إنما قنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم شهرا فقال مازال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقنت في صلاة الغداةحتى فارق الدنيا

“We were sitting with Anas [ibn Mālik] and it was said to him that Rasulullah (sa) only performed qunut for one month [then ceased]. So he said, ‘Rasulullah (sa) never ceased performing qunut in the Morning Prayer until he left this world.’”

This narration is recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and Al-Haythami commented, “Its men are trustworthy.”3 Abdur-Razzāq in his Musannaf4, Hilyat Al-Awliya’ 9/57, Al-Bayhaqi in his Al-Kubra, Al-Hākim in his Mustadarak who said, “It is Sahih upon the conditions of Al-Bukhārī and he did not report it with this wording.” Adh-Dhahabi agreed. Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr Al-’Asqalani stated in Nata‘ij Al-Afkar fi Takhrij Ahadith Al-Adhkar, “This hadith is Hasan, it was reported by Ahmad from Abdur-Razzaq from Abu Ja’far Ar-Razi.”((Vol. 2 page 94, Dar Al Kutub Al-’Ilmiyyah )) Imam an-Nawawi says about his hadith in his Majmu’,

“This hadith is Sahih (rigorously authentic) and it was reported by a group of the masters of hadith whom declared it Sahih. From those who declared this hadith authentic were Al-Hafith Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Al-Balkhi and Al-Hakim Abu Abdullah in several places throughout his works, as well as Imam Al-Bayhaqi, and it is reported by Ad-Daraqutni through [many] ways that are Sahih.” [Vol. 3 page 484]

The disagreement regarding this chain from Abu Ja’far Ar-Rāzī from Ar-Rabi’ ibn Anas stems from some scholars weakening Abu Ja’far Ar-Rāzī. Al-Hafith Ibn Hajr in Talkhīs Al-Habīr says the following concerning him,

“Abdullah ibn Ahmad reports from his father that he said, “He is not strong.” Ibn Abi Maryam reports from Ibn Ma’īn that he was “Impeccably trustworthy (thiqah), though made mistakes.” Ad-Dawri stated, “Impeccably trustworthy, though he mingled his narrations when reporting from Al-Mughīrah.”5 As-Sājī said, “Honest, but not muttaqin in narrating.”6 Abdullah ibn Ali ibn Al Madīnī reported from his father that he said that he was like Musa ibn Abidah (or Ubaidah), he mingled what he reported from Al-Mughīrah. Muhammad ibn Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah reported from Ali ibn Al-Madinī that he said, “Thiqah“. I say: ‘Muhammad ibn ‘Uthman is weak and the report from Abdullah is stronger from his father. Abu Zura’ah said, “Many mistakes. Amru ibn Ali said, “Sadūq(honest), had mistakes in memorizing, and more than one declared him thiqah(trustworthy).”

Hāfith ibn Hajr continues,

“And we have found a witnessing report for this narration:

It was reported by Al-Hasan ibn Sufyan from Ja’far ibn Mihran from Abdul-Wārith from ‘Amru from Al-Hasan from Anas who said, ‘I prayed with Rasulullah and he never ceased making qunut in the morning prayer until he departed. And [I also prayed] behind Abu Bakr and he did that as well, and behind ‘Umar and he did that as well.”

Ibn Hajr continues by saying that some deem this narration authentic, although he does not believe it to be so, as ‘Amru is from the leaders of the Qadariyyah and he is ‘Amru ibn Ubaid, and his hadith are not standing as proof.”

[End of quotes from Ibn Hajr]

Before turning to the witnessing report, we must review the original narration from Abu Ja’far Ar-Rāzī from Ar-Rabi’ ibn Anas. Many quotes were left out by Ibn Hajr in his review of Abu Ja’far Ar-Rāzī in his Talkhīs. Yet in his Tahthīb At-Tahthīb we find many statements of praise that have been dropped by him here. For example, another report from Imam Ahmad from his relative Hanbal states, “Sālih Al-Hadīth (good in hadith).” Is-Hāq ibn Mansūr reports from Ibn Ma’in that he said, “He was thiqah and from Khurasān coming from Ar-Ra’y and he died in it.” Ibn ‘Ammār Al-Mawsūlī grades him “Impeccably trustworthy (thiqah)” without criticism. Abu Hātim said, “ThiqahSadūq (honest), Sālih Al-Hadīth.” Ibn ‘Adi concluded regarding him, “For him there are good narrations. The people (i.e. the scholars) reported from him. The general mass of his narrations are established (mustaqīmah), and I hope there is nothing wrong with him.” Ibn Sa’ad declared him impeccably trustworthy (thiqah). Al-Hākim declared him thiqah. Ibn Abdul-Barr stated, “According to them (i.e. the scholars), he is thiqah, a scholar of tafsir of the Qur’an.” [end of the extraction from Tahthib At-Tahthib entry 9359] Ibn Hajr in his Taqrīb states that he was honest (sadūq), made mistakes in memorization specifically from Al-Mughīrah.

Al-Hākim , Adh-Dhahabi, and Al-Haythamī, An-Nawawi, al-Bayhaqi, and Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr Al-Asqalani as mentioned earlier, and others  concluded that this hadith was authentic. It is clear that the later scholars saw that he did not have many mistakes, and the ones that he did were from Al-Mughīrah, not from Anas. The Shafi’is then follow the grading of this hadith authentic.

As for the supporting narration that included Amru ibn ‘Abid then it seems the scholars abandoned him because he called to bida’ah as he was a Mu’tazili Qadari. There is consensus that he is to be abandoned as mentioned by Hafith Al-Arna’ut in his gloss of the taqrib.

There is another supportive chain for this narration reported by Imām Al-Bayhaqī in his Sunan though in its chain is Ismā’īl ibn Muslim Al-Makkī. Imam Al-Bayhaqi says, “It is also reported by Ismā’īl ibn Muslim Al-Makkī and ‘Amru ibn ‘Abid from Al-Hasan from Anas except that we do not seek support with Isma’īl or ‘Amru ibn ‘Abīd.” One should note though that Isma’īl is not as weak as ‘Amru ibn ‘Abid according to Abu Hātim. Ibn Hajr records in his Tahthib the following, “Abu Hātim said, ‘He is weak in hadith and mingled narrations (mukhtalt). Ibn Abi Hātim said, ‘I asked my father, Is he more liked to you than ‘Amru ibn ‘Abid? He said, “They are both weak, though Isma’il is weak in hadith, not abandoned in hadith, record his narrations.”

Proof 2:

Bukhāri in his Sahih, Ahmad in his Musnad, An-Nasā’ī, Ibn Mājah, Al-Bayhaqī and others report from Ibn Umar that he heard Rasulullah (‘alayhi salaam) making du’a after raising from ruku’ against the munāfiqīn (hypocrites). Then Allah revealed,

لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ أَوْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ أَوْ يُعَذَّبَهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ ظَالِمُونَ

“Not for thee, (but for Allah), is the decision: Whether He turn in mercy to them, or punish them; for they are indeed wrong-doers.”

The opponents of Qunut in Fajr say that this verse told the Prophet Muhammad to cease performing it. However, in the Shāfi’ī view, what was abrogated was the making du’ā against the hypocrites and Mushrikīn, not the actual performance of Qunūt in Fajr. So in this narration is proof that the Prophet performed Qunut in Salatul-Fajr. [See Majmu' of Imam An-Nawawi 3:484-]

Proof 3:

Similar was reported by the companion Khufāf ibn `Aymā` from Ahmad, At-Tahawī, Al-Bayhaqī and others.

Proof 4:

Muhammad ibn Nasr in his Mukhtasar Qiyām Al-Layl wa Qiyām Ar-Ramadān (1/135) reports the following narration:

Muhammad ibn Rāfi’ from Abdur-Razzāq from Ibn Jurayj from Muhammad ibn ‘Ali who heard from Ibn ‘Abbas that the Nabi (‘alayhis salaam) would make qunut in the morning prayer and in witr within the night.”

Imam Al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan reports from Ibn ‘Abbas and Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Al-Hanafiyyah (the son of Ali ibn Abi Tālib) the above through Ibn Jurayj from Abdur Rahman ibn Hurmuz from بريدبنأبيمريمthat he heard Ibn Abbas and Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Al-Hanafiyyah in Khayf saying, “The Nabi would make qunut in the morning prayer and in the witr of the night with the following words: اللهم اهديني في من هديت…”

Imām Al-Bayhaqī stated that this hadith was Sahīh.

This hadith was also reported in the Musannaf of Abdur-Razzāq in the book of Witr, chapter of Qunut, hadith 4907. These narrations were also reported by Al-Hāfith Ibn Hajr Al-’Asqalani in his Talkhīs [Narration numbers 1268-1269 printed by Adwa' -As-Salaf Editor Dr. Muhammad Ath-Thānī ibn Umar ibn Musā]

 

Proof 5:

Bara’ ibn ‘Azib reported the following:

حدثنا محمد بن جعفر حدثنا شعبة عن عمرو بن مرة قال سمعت ابن أبي ليلى قال حدثنا البراء بن عاز بأن نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقنتفيصلاةالصبحوالمغرب

“The Nabi would make Qunut in the morning prayer and in Al-Maghrib.”

Also, Imam Al-Hāzimī Al-Hamdhānī Ash-Shāfi’ī narrates in his tome, “Al-‘Itibār fin-Nāsikh wal-Mansūkh” a work explaining the abrogated and abrogating reports, the following chain:

[...] Sulaymān ibn Ahmad from Ya’qub ibn Is-Hāq Al-Makhramī from ‘Ali ibn Bahr ibn Bari from Muhammad ibn Anas from مطرفبنطريفfrom Abil-Jahm from Al-Barā’ibn ‘Azib who said that the Nabi would not make one of the obligatory prayers except that he would make Qunut in it.”

Hāzimi states that Sulaymān (i.e. At-Tabarānī) stated, “only Muhammad ibn Anas reported this from Mutarrif.” The editor, Shaykh Ahmad Tantāwī Jawharī Musaddad grades this particularly chain “Hasan” in his gloss of Hāzimi’s work. The Shaykh also quotes this narration via a different chain from Ad-Dāraqutni in his chapter “The Description of the Qunut” in his Sunan, quoting Haythami as saying, “It is reported by At-Tabarānī in Al-Awsat and its men are all trustworthy.”

Imam An-Nawawi explaining these reports that mention Salatul Maghrib states that there is no harm in the people leaving qunut in Salatul-Maghrib as it is not wajib (obligatory) or there is Ijma‘ (consensus) that it is abrogated. (Majmu’ 3:484)

From the Rightly Guided Khulafā’:

Al-Hāfith Ibn Hajr in his Talkhīs Al-Habīr reports the following narrations:

From Al-‘Awwām ibn Hamzah who said, “I asked Abu Uthmān regarding the Qunūt in the morning prayer (as-Subh). He said, “[Do it] After Ruku’.” I said, “From whose authority?” He said, “From Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthmān!” (Reported by Imam Al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan Al-Kubra 2/202)

Imam An-Nawawi states in his Majmu’ regarding this athar, “It is reported by Al-Bayhaqi who said its chain was Hasan.” (Majmu’ 3:484)

From the path of Qatādah from Al Hasan from Abi Rāf’i that Umar would make Qunut in the morning prayer. (Sunan Al-Kubra Al-Bayhaqi. 2/208)

From Hammad from Ibrahim from Al-Aswad who said, “I prayed behind Umar as a resident and while traveling and he would only make Qunut in Fajr. (ibid)

And also reported with an authentic chain (sahīh) from Abdullah ibn Ma’qil ibn Muqrin who said, “Ali would make qunut in fajr.” This was also reported by Imām Ash-Shāfi’ī himself. (See Ma’rifatus-Sunan wal-āthār #’s 968-969) Imam An-Nawawi quotes Imam Al-Bayhaqi as saying regarding this athar, “This [comes] from ‘Ali through a well-known (mashhur) Sahih [chain].” (Majmu’ 3:484)

These are the majority of the proofs presented by the Shafi’i Imams in defense of their verdict that Qunut in Fajr is sunnah. May Allah bless our beloved master Muhammad, his family, his companions, and his followers. Amin!

______________________________________

References:

  1. Sirraj Al-Wahhaj ‘Ala Matn Al-Minhāj page 148: Dar-Al-Kutub Al-‘Ilmiyyah []
  2. page 147-148 []
  3. See Al-Majma’ 2/142 []
  4. 4963 []
  5. See Tārīkh Ad-Dawrī 4/358 []
  6. Tārīkh Al-Baghdād []
 

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