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What does ihram for hajj ifrad, qiran, and tamattu' mean?

There are three ways of performing hajj: ifrad, qiran, and tamattu'.
Source : Ali-Gomaa.com / 19 Oct 2013
 
Question:
 
What does ihram for hajj ifrad, qiran, and tamattu' mean?
 
Answer: 
 
There are three ways of performing hajj: ifrad, qiran, and tamattu'.
 
Ifrad
 
According to some scholars such as the Shafi'is, ifrad is performing hajj before 'umrah by entering ihram for hajj first from the designated miqat, finishing the rites of hajj, leaving Mecca for al-Hill to assume ihram for 'umrah and then performing its rites. For hajj ifrad, some scholars do not stipulate making 'umrah after hajj and consider that hajj ifrad is accomplished by performing the rites of hajj alone (without subsequently performing 'umrah). 
 
Qiran
 
Qiran means entering ihram for hajj and 'umrah simultaneously, or enter ing ihram for 'umrah and subsequently incorporating the intention to perform hajj into the intention for 'umrah before beginning the rites of 'umrah. A pilgrim then performs the rites of hajj, fulfilling the obligation for both hajj and 'umrah. 
 
Tamattu'
 
Tamattu' means performing 'umrah first before subsequently entering ihram for hajj, so called because a pilgrim on hajj tamattu' is allowed to do the things that are unlawful for a person in ihram in the period between 'umrah and hajj.
 
A pilgrim on hajj ifrad is not obliged to slaughter, though he may do so if he wishes. But a pilgrim on hajj qiran or tamattu' must slaughter and the reason for this obligation is the omission of entering ihram for hajj from the miqat site for people of his country. 
 
There is a scholarly debate on the best way to perform hajj. According to the Maliki and Shafi'i scholars, the best is hajj ifrad. Maliki scholars have maintained that it is followed by qiran and then tamattu' in preference while the Shafi'is said that it is followed by tamattu' and then qiran. According to the Hanafis, the best of the three is qiran, followed by tamattu' and then ifrad while the Hanbalis maintain that tamattu' is best followed by ifrad and then qiran. 
 
We recommend that a pilgrim choose that which is easier for him.
 
 
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Subject: The ruling for a pilgrim who forgetfully wears an 'abaya 
 
Question
 
A person forgetfully wore an 'abaya (robe) before shaving his head and after throwing Jamrat al-'Aqabah al-Kubra. He then shaved and made tawaf al-ifada followed by sa'y and full release from ihram. What must he to do?
 
Answer
 
It is established in Shafi'i jurisprudence that it is not obligatory for a pilgrim to make a fidya (compensation) for committing out of forgetfulness or ignorance any of the prohibitions of ihram that are prohibited for reasons of self-indulgence. These include using perfume, engaging in sexual intercourse, wearing sewn garments and covering the face or head. The fidya is only obligatory upon a pilgrim who knowingly and deliberately does any of the above.
 
The ruling
 
If a pilgrim in a state of ihram wears an 'abaya after stoning Jamarat al-'Aqaba out of forgetfulness or ignorance, he is not blameworthy; his hajj is valid and he is not obliged to slaughter in compensation.
 

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